Friday, August 12, 2011


  • at the top of the world, near North pole
  • enormous biome, extremely uniform in appearance
  • covers a fitfth of Earth's surface

Distinct characteristics
  • permafrost, a permanently frozen layer of ground
  • during brief summer, top section of soil may thaw out, allowing plants and microorganisms to grow and reprocuce
    (become dormant during cold, winter months)
  • Another region: alpine tundra- found on tops of tall, cold mountains
  • animals adapted to handle cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly during the short and cool summer
  • temperature during arctic winter can dip to -60F (-51C)
  • average temperature of warmest month is between 50F (10C) and 32F (0C)
  • Average annual temperature is only 10F to 20F (-12C to -6C)
  • soil is often frozen, permafrost usually exists withina metre of surface
  • water is unavailable during most of the year
  • annual precipitation is very low, usually less tha 10 inches

Tundra animals
  • frigid cold and deep snow makes life difficult
  • animals must adapt to the cold to survie ; some grows thick fur which turns to white in winter , some hibernate during the winter months
  • Includes tundra swan, snowy owl, snow bunting, arctic fox, musk ox, Norway lemming


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